Do you think skimming and scanning are the only skills to get you through the Reading?
Is reading every hour of every day going to help you pass the IELTS reading section?
Those certainly help, but the Band 9 students and quality teachers know a Band 9 comes from essential exam skills. You need these skills to kill this monster (IELTS), and move on.
Meet Anna Walker, one of the most helpful teachers I have spoken to so far. She explained a practical 4 step strategy, you can use today to score higher.
Anna Walker from Interactive With Languages
In this episode you will learn:
- Which is more important: the question or the text?
- Which to do first: general questions or specific questions?
- The 4 Stages of passing a reading exam
- How to skim and scan successfully
- Why and how you MUST predict vocabulary and ideas.
- How to Tune into the Topic ©
Download the whole episode here, for free, then sign up.
Ben: Welcome to the podcast. Could you just tell us a little bit about your career and how long you’ve been teaching and your experience with IELTS please, if that’s all right?
Anna: Sure. Well, I’ve been teaching ESL for 12 plus years now and IELTS more recently and in the last sort of three or four years I’ve started focusing directly on IELTS. And in between those times I’ve been working in schools teaching Japanese, as well. So it’s the other language that I teach and music.
Yeah. I became aware of IELTS and I think it’s a really wonderful way of looking at all the different skills and a good way of making sort for a generalized test, it has to be across the board. It’s a successful one I think.
Ben: You said that in the last couple of years you’ve decided to focus on the IELTS. Why was that?
Anna: Yes. Why did I focus on it? Because there’s a need for it. There’s a need for it, I guess. People have been saying do you do IELTS? And the more IELTS that I teach, the more I realize that these direct skills required just for IELTS because it’s about passing a test. It’s not about – well, it’s about improving your English as well, but it’s also about passing a test.
It’s like your VCE at school, I think. You learn all these skills that you have to learn and you build up to a point and then you get to your VCE and this VCE is all about passing your VCE with the highest level you possibly can. There’s a sort of thing about yes, having the skills but yes, knowing how to show that you’ve got those skills. So it’s quite a – so focusing on IELTS has basically allowed teaching people how to show that you have the skills as well as having the skills themselves. It’s a little sort of sharing of knowledge thing you know.
Ben: One thing is having the English ability that you’ve got to apply it in a certain way.
Anna: That’s right.
Ben: And you’ve got to learn how to do these 250-word essays in 40 minutes.
Anna: Right and where in life [Inaudible 2:07] do you need this?
Anna: So I’m thinking it’s a skill that you need to have pass your IELTS [Inaudible 2:15] in order to achieve what you need to achieve and these are the ways that we can do it.
Ben: And you said that you really wanted to discuss the reading because you thought that it’s been – you feel that it’s being overlooked.
Anna: I don’t know what lots of teachers do. I’m not aware of what lots of teachers do but I know that it can be very easy to say let’s get them to scan and actually explain what it is or how to do it. So I don’t want to take away from a lot of teachers. I think they’re very capable and I don’t wish to be anything other than another one of those many teachers.
Ben: Okay. All right.
Anna: Just to make that clear. Yes, I am interested in the ratings.
Ben: Right then. Now if a student came to you – but I was reading on your website earlier that you’ve got quite a lot of thank yous there for the students regarding the reading and how did you approach teaching that?
Anna: When I teach reading of course it depends on what each person needs but I think it is about finding out what it is that you’re reading for. So reading for purpose. Most of the times that when you’re reading, you’re reading for enjoyment or you’re reading for information. For the IELTS you’re doing none of these things. You’re reading because you need to answer questions. When I say read for information I mean, learning about the subject content which you’re reading. You don’t care really about the life cycle of a butterfly or whatever. That doesn’t interest you. What you care about is whether you can get information and answer questions correctly from that reading.
So it’s all about reading for purpose. So I think the first thing that I sort try and help my students to understand is that it doesn’t matter what content over this as much as getting the answers that you need from the content, if that makes sense.
Anna: And so reading for purpose.
Ben: Right then.
Anna: That is the first thing I would sort of try and get across.
Ben: How can a student change how they read because if they’re reading, they’re going to – are they going to guide them of focus, are they going to be quicker? How are they going to change their reading style to adapt for the test?
Anna: Right. Well, this is where skimming and scanning comes in because when you read for pleasure or you read to learn and what you’re doing is you read line by line, you read word by word and you take in information slowly at a pace that you’re – that is comfortable for you. In IELTS, of course, that time is your enemy. You have an hour to read loads and that’s a lot sufficient. So it’s about, first of all, depending on the kind of question that you have, skimming for information and scanning for information they’re two completely different skills, I think. So for example, when you’re giving them more than only do any classes we’d start doing some questions. Here’s reading test, how do we approach it?
And of course, what you ultimately need to do is find what’s comfortable for you and how I would approach reading, I can give advice. This is how I might approach it and I think the student needs to see whether that works for them. And if it doesn’t what can they take away from that and improve in their own style? I’m not saying you have to do it this way. I’m saying, “Here’s the method. Does it work for you? And if not what can you take from what I’ve got and make it work for you?” to improve what you can already do?
I think that’s also important. Don’t do what someone else does because it’s better. Do what you do because it’s the best thing for you. If that makes sense.
Ben: I see.
Anna: But either way. Yeah, then what would I say to them is, for example, first of all, you need to – in order to read quickly or to skim and scan successfully, you need to predict what’s in a text or what the text is about. So if you lift up a piece of paper and it has loads of writing over it, you’ve got no idea what it’s about then your ability to understand what’s in the text is going to not be so large as if you look at the title for example, and see what the title is. Just say it might be something about Australian sports people. It might Australian wins goal to something like that. And you look at the title and you go right. Well, this is going to be about the Olympics probably or certainly about Australian sports. And of all of a sudden your mind is beginning to work into pulling out vocabulary and knowledge that you already have in that field as far as English knowledge. I’m not talking about actual knowledge. It’s English words and vocabulary and knowledge and that kind of thing.
Ben: I see.
Anna: Yeah. Similarly is there’s a picture and to look at the picture, pictures are so important. And you look at the picture and what can you glean from that picture? What is it about? If it’s a picture of four people with medals on, then obviously, it’s going to be about success in sports. They’re talking about success. So of all of a sudden, a whole new set of vocabulary, things that you know are going to probably be in the article. You start predicting. And that’s a very important skill when it comes to skimming and scanning, being able to predict what you think vocabulary-wise might be in the text.
Ben: Excellent. And a student can improve their predictive abilities by – I’m just guessing here, by one, reading more in general, and filling their heads up with more information to put it bluntly in. On topics related to the IELTS, for example, those eight topics, environment, crime, whatever, society, they could read more about that to get that vocabulary there. Is there any other ways we can improve our prediction abilities apart from filling our head with information?
Anna: Reading newspaper articles in general is a great way to study for IELTS because it is in a format often certainly of academic IELTS. It’s in the format often of an academic IELTS essay even if it’s stuff that you’re interested in, even if it’s not about the main topics of IELTS. What it’s allowing you to do is see how articles sort of present themselves, see how words come together, see how the arc of the story sort of works one into the other. There’s always some sort of flow and to see how that works. And that’s going to help when it comes to the actual skimming and scanning parts, you haven’t even got to yet. But all of that sort of comes into play. So just reading newspapers, reading things that you enjoy, reading in general is a great way of beginning.
Ben: I see. And what we’re going to do is predict the vocabulary, predict the type of language bit on a very broad general level.
Anna: And predicting what you think the article might be about. Even if you’re wrong at this point it doesn’t matter because it’s getting a rating is see you know it’s classed as a passive skill but reading for IELTS and reading for learning and reading all that kind of stuff is a very active skill and your brain has to be extremely active to be successful. So what you’re doing is getting your brain active.
Ben: Yes, I see. I see and I was just thinking now one skill would be to pick up a newspaper, look at the headline and then just immediate or look at a picture and immediately jot down as much vocabulary related to that topic and just compare that by reading the article afterwards and do a comparison.
Ben: You know that would like a good technique to just try and get this predictive skill down and under control.
Anna: It’s a skill. That’s a great idea and also adding to the vocabulary by pulling onwards. You don’t know out of the article with adding that to your list and as form of increasing your vocabulary in the areas, you can add to that too. So that’s good.
Ben: Okay. Well, that’s great advice Anna. In the first stage, we’ve got to look at it, predict, generate, get our mind in gear, tune in to this topic and start getting in the mode, so to speak.
Anna: Yeah. Oh, I like how you should tune into the topic. That’s exactly what it is. That’s not surprising. That’s good. You really need to do the topic. Good.
Ben: I mean, I’m just happy right today I think.
Anna: Oh, okay. Dance! Right, right. And then stage 2, I personally think stage 2 is to read the question. Now some people say read the article first. If that works for you, great. I personally think that you should read the questions first and more so, even more so if you’ve got a question, a general question for example, summary completion or what does the author, what is the writer’s point of view? And then you’ve got a specific question such as true/false not given or sentence completion or something like that, I would always do the general question first and then the specific question and the reason why is because the general question will give you an overview of the topic as you hone more and more and more into what the article’s about and then when you get to the specific, a lot of the time you’ve already actually accidentally found some of the answers and throughout the rest of your question answering.
So I would even order my questions the way I answer to general first, specific second. So the first thing I would check on stage 2, read the questions, decide which way you’re going to do them and then read the questions again and again until you’ve got a really good idea of what it is that they’re asking and often particularly in the summary completion questions they often have a lot of the vocab and a summary, an overall summary of what the article’s about anyway.
Ben: Right. Fantastic advice that. That makes so much sense.
Anna: For general, okay. Let me think. I’ve got general. It would often be summary completion, matching headings to paragraphs or identifying the writer’s views, these are general and maybe matching clauses on that – matching clause on fix might be either. And then the specific are things like multiple choice, selecting factors, sentence completion, short-answer questions, be the specific. And true/false not given.
Ben: And then just work through the questions, choose the general ones, get an overview and then later jump into the specific ones.
Anna: That’s how I would approach it.
Ben: Excellent advice that. That would stage 2.
Anna: That would be stage is this sort of deciding looking at the questions and stage 2 includes read – so for example, they might get to say, “A summary completion question” and often it’ll have like A to F and different sentences that say which paragraph does this letter best respond to? That kind of question for example.
Then what I would be doing is reading each summary sentence and making sure that I fully understand the summary sentence and that’s one thing that I do with my students is often I’ll say to them, “We’ll, read the sentence together” and I’ll say, “Well, what does that sentence mean” because it’ll use all these words and if they’re big words, and often the keyword, you’ll pick up the wrong word as the keyword and so we’re focusing on the wrong thing.
So what does the sentence mean? And spending time finding out what the sentence the question sentence means more so than reading and re-reading the actual article might feel like a waste of time because you’re spending it on the question and not the article but actually, I think you’ll find there’s a huge saving in time when it comes to finally answering it. So spending time on the question, understanding the question and exactly what it is that each can be such asking for not glistening over the question going right, I need to find those things, let’s go. So that time on the question in your stage [Inaudible 13:23] is part of the stage 2 is really focusing and spending time.
Ben: Very valuable advice that, definitely. You know, I’ve never thought of it like that because if you make a mistake there, you’re going to go way off track once you start looking. It’s like if you’re in the field and if your start walking off in one direction just a few degrees at the beginning, at the end of 50 meters, you’re going to be way off target from your original destination.
Anna: That’s what it is. That’s correct. That’s exactly what it’s like, yes.
Ben: I see.
Anna: So I get – stay focused on the question because the question is what it’s about. It’s not about anything else. It’s about getting the right answer.
Anna: Yeah. I’m keeping that in mind with the IELTS. I think there’s a lot of people who don’t succeed in their IELTS first time, second time, third time and they had to come very sort of maybe a little bit without confidence anymore about their English. Sometimes it’s not about their English. Sometimes it is. It’s not just about their English. It’s about answering the question and doing the right thing by IELTS if that makes sense.
Ben: Yeah, it makes complete sense. I see it so many times. Okay get emails from students and in their email that they’ve just written in about 10 minutes I’m thinking how – you know, just from their writing ability, how did they get so low and I think that’s why a lot of academies nowadays they’ll say, “Okay. I can get you from a 6 to 7, guaranteed because it’s a case of not actually teaching the English abilities, teaching the exam skills.
Anna: How to pass the test, correct.
Anna: So then we get into skimming and scanning and this is one of the absolute skills that you need to come away with is how to skim, how to scan and what’s the difference. And I would say the difference is skimming you get a huge general look for the information. So skimming is what you’ll do to do your general questions and scanning is finding detailed information and that’s the difference between the two.
So the first thing you’re going to do in an article is skim and the way I teach skimming and it’s the effect of speed reading and it’s a skill that you need to learn. It’s not something that you do once or twice and go, “It’s just too hard.” It’s something that you actually need to practice and practice and practice in order to get successful at it. I think a lot of people go, “I can’t do this” and then go back to their old habits.
Anna: But really putting time in, it’s worth it. So skimming, I advise people to get the article that it is they want to read and use your index finger or any finger but right you know. The index finger is the most natural certainly for many and start in the top left hand side corner of the page where you would normally start reading but then instead of reading across one line, drag your finger diagonally down and across the page depending on the bulk of the writing and also the content and how skilled you are at speed reading or skimming. That is how far down you go. Say for example, you might just cover two lines at once, instead of just one like going across one line that would for beginners. For beginners, just drag your finger across two lines. So down across two lines so you start off in the top left hand corner and you end up on the other side of the page but instead of across one line, you’ve dropped down a line at the same time so your finger’s going down and across and then back, down and across towards the left hand side of the page again. Over and over like in making a quick and a sort of tinsel on a Christmas tree. You’re painting tinsel on a Christmas tree that’s sort of down and across
Ben: So we’re zigzagging across, making a z almost.
Anna: Yeah, basically depending on the size of the zed would depend on how quickly you can do it. So for example, when I skim something, I can, depending on the density, I can skim up to 7 lines at once. Whereas, other – well, maybe more but depending on how density is, whereas some people would only skim two or three lines at once. But either way, while you’re doing that, you’re not trying to read every word. What you’re doing is pulling at keywords and they can be out of order. So you’re just pulling out a key phrase here or word there, just words that pull at and that jump out at you on the page. The reason why you use a finger is because your eye follows your finger along and it finds the words. If you don’t use the finger or something to do it, your eyes don’t have any way to focus on the page.
So you follow your finger with your eye, you pull out all these keywords out of order. It doesn’t matter because it’s just skimming for general information. If you do that as a one paragraph you’ve pulled out all these keywords, you learn in your head because your head’s a very clever thing. It then puts it together in the kind of store a kind of summary of what it is that you’ve read. You haven’t read this but you’ve pulled out all the keywords and you’ve pulled out everything that strikes you in that first paragraph and that will tell you a summary of what the paragraph is probably about.
Ben: I see. Going back to stage 1, we’ve already generated a bank of words and what was given, while we’re doing this we’re probably going to look for these words. We’re already tuned in to what are going to be the keywords of those.
Anna: And also by reading the questions as well.
Anna: And you’re also pulling out more vocabs so by the time you get to the skimming phase, you’ve looked at the picture, you’re read the title, you’ve predicted what it’s going to about, you’ve read the questions, you already know. Your mind is doing all this for you. You don’t have to stress. Your mind is guessing and thinking what this article is going to about trying to prepare yourself for the reading part and then when you’re skimming you’re just pulling out all the keywords and you’re going right, well, I think this paragraph was about based on all the words that I’ve just heard, I’m getting that this is probably going to about – whatever it is about. And I’d say you’re going to be pretty bang on.
Ben: Right then. And you would do this for every single paragraph. You do this, skim the whole article.
Anna: Don’t pass to each paragraph. And stop after each paragraph and particularly if you’re doing things like summary completion or matching headings to paragraphs and all that kind of stuff these are the general questions that skimming is for general knowledge only. And we’re not looking at specific information yet.
Ben: If a student is studying on their own, and they’re just hearing this, is there a way they can practice and test if you’ve learned this ability? You know.
Anna: Right. Well, again, it comes back to just reading, reading, reading outside of IELTS and doing practices of practices is not – it’s useful within reason, but to just read outside of IELTS to know that kind of stuff so get a newspaper article, do for it a paragraph, see how you’re going and then go back and read the article.
Anna: And the rest and see how just close you were. But it’s just – a lot of it’s about confidence and whether you’re brave enough to guess from keywords. It’s very unusual to not read things in order and to just get keywords and then make the order yourself. It’s an unusual thing to do, really. It’s not natural.
Anna: But it’s a very useful skill, skimming.
Anna: And all the students that have learned with me, have certainly after tough courses started off very, very uncertain, but at the time if they’ve stuck with it, they’ve all been like ripe. Well, this is how we passed this test. This is not – I’m not saying go away now and read like this forever. This is reading for purpose. This is all we’re doing.
Ben: Yeah, to show exam skills.
Anna: That’s it.
Ben: Excellent advice, that. And then after we’ve done this skimming, we’re going to do the scanning.
Anna: Correct. Now scanning is all about answering direct questions, true/false not given all that kind of stuff. Now scanning is not about matching words to words and this is something that everybody seems to do. They go, “Oop, there’s that word. Nope. Here’s this word and therefore, it must be the right answer because it’s the same word.” Often you’ll find in IELTS that they have synonyms within the article to what they have in the question so that it avoids such easy matching.
So that’s the first. So there’s a thing that people fall into is matching words and questions to the words in the article and they’ll often get the wrong answer that way.
Anna: So scanning for information therefore, is all about – feasible by doing – don’t forget. You’ve already now done your skimming. You’ve already answered your first general question. While you’re doing that, chances are words have come up in your mind that you have seen and you remember that there they are even very vaguely. You’re not trying very hard to do it. You kind of go, “Oh, yeah. There was that [Inaudible 22:03] that it’s got there and yet your mind being very active is doing all that kind of stuff.
So for example, with scanning, okay. One example of a scanning might be look at the inventor and what did the inventor invent? Which of these things did the inventor invent? So this is specific information. I guess what you’d be doing is looking first of all, an inventor is a person’s name so obviously, you’re looking for names. So you’re scanning for information and just scanning very quickly through and finding any names that you find. When you find a name, what I would do is circle those names, everywhere. Just chkchk. So you go.
Anna: So there you go. You’ve got all your names in your paragraph. Now you have to match up what the inventor invented. Now scanning is when you go to a point and then you look around that point to see if the information is there that you need. So the first skill is (a) find the point and that can often be done by just looking for names or if a true/false is not given things it might be just looking for a particular information like it might ask to say, “The Eskimos and Inuits and what are these?” and so all of these things usually have a proper noun in there somewhere so you’re using these sort of capital letters or certain phrases that can’t be reworded to find the point in the paragraph and in the whole article. Does that make sense?
Ben: Yes, yeah, yeah. It makes sense.
Anna: And then circle that or underline that or whatever you do, and then in a spiral motion from that central bit, spiral motion going up where it’s again, you don’t read this. You have to find the information. I suggest there’s lots of different ways. It depends on who you are, what you like. You can start from the centre and spiral out until you start seeing kinds of information that cover the point or you can start a little bit above and read through and end up a little bit below until you find of this central word that you found and find the point it is you’re looking for. If you can’t find it, move on. What you can remember is that most of the questions usually are in order from top to bottom, 1 to 10. You know 1 will usually set at the top and 10 will usually be at the bottom. Sometimes there might be one that’s out of order and that’s just you know. That’s just like of a drawer. You have to do with that as it comes. But if you’ve missed a question, you can’t find question two and you see question three. Do question three and then look up for question two. You know, if it’s not up is not above question three and you can’t find it you’ve missed it generally speaking.
Ben: I see. All right we go through and then work in a logical way. And occasionally we’re going to expect. We can expect at least one question probably to be out of order but either way, the important thing is if we’re not there, don’t dwell on the question. Move on, keep moving, working through. Yeah?
Anna: Yeah, and you’ve got 20 minutes to complete one article. If you’ve finished the best you can do and you’ve missed a couple, within that 20 minutes, go back and look for it. Or if you want to do the whole lot and then go back again, I personally think once you’ve finished an article and move on to the next one, you need to not go back again to the old one just because you’ve already moved. You’ve had all these vocab and knowledge and everything from all the project thing and everything that’s all in your head when you move to the next article, you have to get rid of that and start again with your new article. So I would think it’s a better idea. Again, it’s up to you, but I would think it’s a better idea to complete one article as best as you possibly can in the time that you want to – 20 minutes of course per article is the sign that if you’ve finished each one really quickly, good for you .Then move on to the next one and spend 20 minutes on that one as best as you can, and then move on to the next one and spend 20 minutes on that as best as you can. That’s all in all. If you want to change the times because obviously the last ones are a bit harder, sometimes. So if you want to allow for 25 minutes in the last one and then 15 minutes in the first, that’s your prerogative.
Ben: I’ve got two points here. One, I totally agree with what you said about spending 100 percent on one article then moving forward. I am just having like a one-direction approach and just going straight forward because I was reading a book about productivity and they said, “If a person is sending an email and answering a phone call, then talking to a colleague, then goes back to the email, some people would call that multi-tasking but others – well, this author was saying that if you’re switching between these tasks, you’re going to have what are called switching costs and that’s the cost the time it takes to get your mind back into gear to doing this task and although we’re not going to be switching between of course, looking out of the window and doing the reading exam, we’re not going to be doing that, but the same applies. There will be switching costs involved from jumping from one article about maybe the Olympics and then another article about beavers in Canada, for example.
Ben: Yeah. That makes perfect sense. My other question was that of the students aiming because these – like the questions and the articles, they generally get harder as we progress through the test.
Anna: Right. Yup.
Ben: Would you recommend if a student’s aiming for a band 7 and that’s all they need to get, would you recommend that they possibly spend less time in the final section knowing that it’s maybe a bit too difficult and pick up the points guaranteed or not guaranteed but spend more time where they’re more likely to pick up points. Would you recommend that strategy?
Anna: No. No, I wouldn’t really and the reason why is because first of all, they’re undermining their own ability. I think that by saying, “I’m not going to be able to do this” is maybe a confidence thing as opposed to an actual debility thing. I think that they’re probably quite capable of getting some points from that to that article. So going in with an “I cannot” the truth is it’s a very – a powerful thing to have to say, “Yup, I can do this” rather than, “Oh, that. If I’m going to be, I’ll do this. I’ll just do the best I can.” I think you’ll achieve more with an I cannot achieve.
And secondly, you might miss out on one or two points in the first two articles and even if you give yourself all the time in the world, there’s no guarantee that you’re going to get those two points. It might be extremely hard. I’ve done reading where I just look at the questions and go, “Wow! That’s a toughie and that’s a trick one. How dare you do this?” There’s no guarantee that you’re going to get that. So if you’re going to spend an extra five minutes to perhaps get one of the simple questions or spend that five minutes preparing yourself and to get at least 19 out 20 or whatever, in the next one, then you’re much better off going for the last one.
Ben: I see. Excellent.
Anna: That’s my opinion, anyway. Go for it.
Ben: Yeah, yeah, great. Great advice there. Right. Do you have any more points for the reading?
Anna: I just think generally speaking, just general points always are probably things that people put interplay anyway, are things that make sure you look for proper nouns if they’re required. They’re easy to find acronyms. But those kinds of things, tables and table completion. What a wonderful gift that is you know. It’s just all about finding. If you get that you’re set. Lots of stuff like that. Just be clever about looking for words but don’t fall into the trap of matching word for word. That’s a big trap. I think apart from that, I don’t know if there’s anything else at this stage.
Anna: Can you think of anything else that you’d like to add?
Ben: Well, I keep reading around and I think the students are probably on the same thing. Then you add your own personal experience with other students. Some authors, they say, “Do lots and lots of practice tests.” Other authors say, “No, that’s a crazy way to do it. What you need to be doing is reading.” And another says, “Read what you really love because you’re going to pay attention” but what I was just going to say is I think you should do a mix and also, going back to what you said, which I thought is just really valuable advice, doing what works best for you and trying each strategy because each person learns and operates slightly differently so you need to do what works for you personally. That probably means quite a few reading tests that some students, they will do maybe 10, 20, 30 practice tests to get their skill under control. Others will just do reading practice in the sort of like IELTS manner, looking and skimming, practicing those skills but with material that they actually enjoy.
Then I would just want to add that you’re probably best doing a little bit of each but focusing on what works best for you.
Anna: And it depends on your time limits. It depends on lots of things that you know, you’re in control of your own situation. If you only got a week, then of course, focus on IELTS but if you got six months, then enjoy it.
Ben: Exactly. Yeah. Exactly. Right.
Anna: Great advice, Ben.
Ben: So Anna, if the students would like to get in contact with you could you tell us where to find you on the internet?
Anna: Oh, sure. My website is www.interactwithlanguages.com that’s the main one.
Ben: Okay. And there, what kind of services can they find?
Anna: At the moment, I provide online tutoring on Skype as well as in open, as well if you’re at Face to Face if you live in Melbourne, Australia. I also do essay correcting and not only in IELTS. I also teach TOEFL and other ESL.
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