In this part two of The Essentials for IELTS Grammar 2020, we will be giving you examples, explanations, and how you can use these structures in your IELTS essay.
In this tutorial, we will specifically be looking at higher-level vocabulary mainly focused around band 8.
We’ll look at the following:
Alternative complex conditional structures
|Replace if with should at the beginning of the clause, particularly in very formal English (formal letters).||Should you require any further information, do not hesitate to contact me.|
|We can use If it was/were notfor or had not been for to say that one situation is dependent on another situation or person.||If it hadn’t been for the tour guide, they would never have seen those carvings in the caves.
If it had not been for the investigative journalist, the politicians would have never gone to jail.
|Use if + was/were + to + infinitive to talk about imaginary future situations.||If the technology were to become available, we would be able to travel across the world in just a couple of hours.|
Defining and non-defining relative clauses, relative pronouns
|Defining relative clauses give essential information so that we can identify who or what is being talked about.
The relative clause follows immediately after the noun referring to the person(s) or thing(s) we are talking about.
NO commas at the beginning or end of a defining relative clause!
|The woman who showed the most determination got the job.
The gorillas which/that lived nearby were completely obliterated as a result of deforestation.
|Non-defining relative clauses give non-essential, extra information about something or someone.
ALWAYS use a comma before and immediately after the clause.
|Her resume, which made a big impression on the interviewers, helped her get the job.|
|Many relative clauses are introduced by a relative pronoun.||She is a scientist whose work is world famous.
She spent many years in China, where she worked in a bank.
Megan, who has been working in the IT department for two years, has been promoted.
Structures for reason, result and purpose
|A number of conjunctions (FANBOYS) and adverbs show relationships between cause and effect.||He is ambitious, so he doesn’t mind staying late at work most evenings.
She decided to do an evening course in book-keeping so as to be better able to help her brother with his new business.
|The following prepositions introduce cause.||Owing to the storms, all transportation has been diverted.
The students couldn’t sleep for worrying.
|The following verbs introduce cause.||Her attitude stems from her background.
The success of the company is based on the employees’ hard work and enthusiasm.
|Participle clauses can also express cause and effect.||Having done extensive market research, the company was confident its new product would succeed.|
|The following nouns can refer to cause and effect: aim, basis, consequence, explanation, motive, outcome, purpose, reason, result.||The aim of the programme was to give students work experience.
His laziness is the reason why he is not as successful as he could be.
|Participle clauses with a present participle can be used adjectivally.||The problem being discussed the most now is the newly emerged virus in Asia.|
|All participle clauses can be used adverbially.||Feeling exhausted after long hours of cramming, students are unable to have a job at all.|
|Perfect participle clauses are often adverbial clauses showing when or why something happened.||Having made their decision, it was not possible to change their mind. (= When they have made)|
Take a look at some sample IELTS writing task 2 questions to help you prepare.
You can download or listen to the audio version here:
|Direct Download Here | Stitcher | iTunes | Spotify | Soundcloud | Transcript |